7#     ..... 8^bx.p * 
*ǥ ǥ

'91






ѱ ߸







1993 9







: Ǵб

å:






м


"ѱ ߸ " մϴ.





1993 9 1




: Ǵб

å:





ѱ ߸
. ʿ伺

(1)

Ҹ ִ ߼ ѱ ߸ Ͽ ڷḦ ϰ ̹ ϼ ѱ ܸ Ͽ 踦 ν ռ ڵ ν ġ ߿ ⿩ Ѵ.

(2) ʿ伺

ó ÷ܱ ν Ҿ м ռо߿ ô ̰ , ѱ ڷ ݲ ǥڷ ̿ ŭ ̷ ϸ, Ư ҿ ġ ʾ ν Ǵ ռ о߿ ̿ ִ ڷ ⿡ ϴ. Ư, ߸ ۺ ϱ Ҵ. ӽð ̿Ͽ Ѵ. ߸ ܸ Բ ϰ Ȯ ν̳ ռ ġ ߿ ʼ̶ ִ ߿ ̴.


.

(1)

ù°, ︻ ѱ 10 ߼ ѱ ߸ (F1, F2, F3) ⺻ ļ (F0) мϿ ѱ ߸ ڷḦ ϴ ̴. °, ߸ ڷ ̹ ϼ ѱ ܸ 踦 ϸ, °, ߸ ӽð Ͽ Ȯ ռ νĽ迡 ʿ ڷḦ Ѵ.

(2)

δ ǰϰ û 10 ׷ Ѵ. ǥδ Ѱ [_ ] ȯ濡 ټ 迭 ġ ǿ ӵ ڿ ϰ Ѵ. ̵ ߼ ȭ ۰ κ , The University of Texas at Austin VAX ǻͿ ϵǾ ִ KLSPEC Ʈ (MIT D.H.Klatt UT Jerry Lame ) Ͽ ߸ ⺻ ļ Ͽ ġ ȯ . ߸ Ͽ ϱ ۰ κл ӽð ̿Ͽ ϰ ð Ͽ ġ ȯϿ ڷḦ Ѵ. δ, ̷ ڷ ѱ ܸ ڷ 踦 ŽѴ. , ߸ ӽð мѴ.


.

ǥظ ϴ 10 ڷ ڷḦ ߸ ϱ Ͽ ռ̳ νĿ Ȱ ֵ Ͽ.
ѱ ߸ غ .
1. ߸ ⺻ ļ ڰ ȭ ǥ м , ȭ ־.
2. հ ϰ ߸ [] ͼ, ߸ ռ ⺻ Ͽ ȯϴµ ̿ ִ.
3. ⺻ļ ȭ м , 2 ȭ ־, 1, 3 Ÿ. ⺻ļ ٸ ū ȭ . Ư, 2 ־, [y] ϴ ׷ ϰϰ, [w] ϴ ׷ ϴ .
4. ȭ , ַ ݿϴ 1 [] ϰ Ͽٰ κп ϰϿ. ̿ ַ ݿϴ 2 ٴ ļ ȭ .
5. [__] 汸 Ŀ ϱ κ ߾ Ͽ. [] 쿡 2 ̵Ÿ  [] .
6. ӽð ؼ 110 msecν ߼߰, 33 msec ȭڰ 14 msecν ü ڳ ǰ ־.
7. ߸ ܸ 񱳿 ܸ ߸ ѷ ȭ , Ư ° ð ܸ ߸ ġϿ. ̴ ߸ ݴ, ù ° ϰ ª ǰ, ι ° ǥ ϰ Ȯ Ǿ ش.
8. ߸ ܸٴ 1,2 ȭ ΰ ټ Ȱϴٰ ִ. , ߸ ̵ θ 캸, [w]׷쿡 1,2 Ѵٸ, [y]׷쿡 1 ϳ 2 ַ ϰѴ. ߸ κ ׻ ܸ ư. ߸ ̵ δ ü ªƼ ߸ شѴٰ , [] Ͼ.

. ȿ Ȱ

ѱ ߸ ڷ ̿ ̸, ܸ ߸ ȣ 踦 ν ռ ڵ νġ ̳ ѱ ȰǸ ȴ. Ư, ߸ ѽ Դ о м ν ϰ Ǹ .




׸ ------------------------------------------------- vii
ǥ --------------------------------------------------viii

1 ---------------------------------------------- 1

2 忬 ------------------------------------------- 2
2.1 ߸ ǿ ------------------------- 2
2.2 ߸ Ư¡ ------------------------- 6
2.3 ߸ ---------------------- 12
2.4 ߸ -------------------------------- 16
2.5 ѱ ߸ ------------------------------ 20

3 ------------------------------------------- 22
3.1 ǥ ---------------------------- 22
3.2 ڷ ---------------------------------- 23
3.3 ⺻ļ ----------------------- 24

4 м -------------------------------------- 26
4.1 ߸ ⺻ļ -------------- 26
4.2 ߸ ܸ ----------------------- 33
4.3 ߸ ӽð --------------------- 36

5 ---------------------------------------------- 40

-------------------------------------------------- 42
η
η 1. 忡 -- 45
η 2. ǥ ----------------------------------- 45
η 3. κ ߸ ⺻
ļ հ ---------------------------- 46
η 4. κ ߸ Ͽ
ӽð հ -------------------------- 58
η 5. ܸ ⺻ļ ----------- 59
η 6. 10 (s10) ȭǥ -------------- 60
η 7. ں 1,2,3 ð
׷ ------------------------------------- 61
η 8. 캻 1,2,3 ð
10 ׷ ---------------- 81
η 9. 캻 ⺻ļ ð
10 ׷ ---------------- 87
η 10.S10 ȭ ׷ ----------- 89

׸

׸ 2.1 ߸ ----------------------------------- 4
׸ 2.2 ߸ ߸ --------------------------- 5
׸ 2.3 ߸ /
ӽð ȭ -------------------------------------- 6
׸ 2.4 / Ŀ ߸ ӽð ------ 7
׸ 2.5 a Y a buy
׷ ---------------------------------------- 9
׸ 2.6 ߰κп ġ Ŀ ---------- 10
׸ 2.7 Ʈα׷ ̿ ߸ -------- 11
׸ 2.8 ߸ ӽð ȭ -- 13
׸ 2.9 ߸ ӵ 2 ȭ ----- 15
׸ 2.10 ̱ Ϻ ǥ ------ 17
׸ 3.1 ð ӽð 23
׸ 4.1 ð 캻 ѱ ߸ ̵- 32
׸ 4.2 ܸ ߸ ð ---------------- 34
׸ 4.3 ߸ ܸ м---------------------- 35

ǥ

ǥ 2.1 ڵ麰 ߸ ǥ ----------------- 19
ǥ 2.2 ѱ ݸ -------------- 21
ǥ 4.1 ߸ 10 κ ⺻ļ
׿ ǥ -------------------- 26
ǥ 4.2 [w] [y] ϴ ׷ Ͽ
հ ----------------------------------------- 29
ǥ 4.3 ù ° ð ° ð ļ
ȭ -------------------------------------------- 31
ǥ 4.4 ߸ Ͽ ӽð հ
ǥ ------------------------------------------ 36
ǥ 4.5 ں ӽð ǥ -------------- 37
ǥ 4.6 S10 ߼ ߸ ð ־
----------------- 38
ǥ 4.7 s10 ߼ ߸ ð ־
׷캰 -------- 38



1
1992⵵ ѱм ( ) м Ͽ Ǿ.


ó ÷ܱ ν Ҿ м ռо߿ ô ̰ , ѱ ߸ ڷ ݲ ǥڷ ̿ ŭ ̷ ϸ, Ư ҿ ġ ʾ ν Ǵ ռ о߿ ̿ ִ ڷ ⿡ ϴ. , ߸ ۺ ϱ ־ س ڷᰡ . ߸ ܸ Բ ϰ Ȯ ν̳ ռ ġ ߿ ʼ̶ ִ ߿ ̴.
Ҹ ִ ߼ ѱ ߸ Ͽ ڷḦ ϰ ̹ ϼ ѱ ܼ ڷ Ͽ 踦 ν ռ ڵ ν ġ ߿ ⿩ Ѵ.
캸 2忡 ߸ ڵ پ ߸ ǿ ϰ, ߸ ѱ ڷḦ Ѵ. 3忡 ׷ ϵ ڸ ϴ ǥ ϰ ̵ ߼ м . 4忡 ︻ ѱ 10 ߼ ѱ ߸ (F1, F2, F3) ⺻ ļ (F0) м ϰ

[y] ϴ ׷ [w] ۵Ǵ ׷ мϸ, ̹ ϼ ѱ ܸ Ѵ. ٿ, ߸ ӽð Ͽ ռ  ʿ Ѵ. 5忡 ϰ ȵ ٷ.

2 忬

2.1 ߸ ǿ

Ŀ 븦 ɷ , ߿ ų ν ޸ Ǵ ̶Ѵ. ʴ ܸ (monophthong, Ǵ simple vowel)̶ϰ Ǵ ߸ (diphthong), ߸ (triphthong)̶ ϸ ̰͵ (compound vowel) ̶ θ.
߸ Ǹ 캸, , л(, 1990) ߸̶ ϴµ ϳ ȭϴ , ̸(gliding vowel) ų (full vowel) (glide) յǾ ִٰ ų Ǵ ̿ ϴ Ǿִٰ . ̷ ڵ鸶 ٸ Ǹ Ǵ , , Ǵ ̵ տ ߸ ؼϱ ̴. , Hibbitt (1948), Gleason (1955), Catford (1977) ߸ ٸ ȥ̶ ϰ, Trager Smith (1951) ߸ ݸ Ҵ. , Lehiste Peterson (1961), Malmberg (1963), Gay (1968), Gerber (1972) ߸ ǥ ġ (vocalic syllable nucleus) Ҵ.
Kenyon (1966:208) ߸̶ Ҹ , ϰ ϸ, ϴ ("one continuous gliding vowel sound within one syllable") Ǿִٰ Ͽ, Gerhard (1954:21) ġ ٸ ġ ϴ ("monosyllabic vowel glide commencing at the position for one vowel and moving toward another") Ѵٰ Ͽ. (1988:225) ߸̶ " ȿ ̲ ϳ " ϰ [aU] [a] Ͽ [u] Ͽ ̲ ϵ [u] ġ ʴ´ٴ ̴. , (1990:24) ߸ ƴ϶  Ͽ ġ ϴ [ + ]̶ Ͽ. Ladefoged (1982:281) ߸ "a vowel in which there is a change in quality during a single syllable." ϰ, ȭ ִ ̶ Ͽ. ࿡ ǥ ߼ (vocalic gesture) ǥ ϴٸ ߸ ٸ ǥ ̴. ̷ ǥ ߸ ϱⰡ ƴ. , ߸̶ ݵ "ٸ" ǥ ؾ Ѵ (Ladefoged Maddieson, 1990:120).
ݱ ߸ ǿ , ߸̶ Ұ ְ ̿ ϴ ̺ΰ ִٴ ̴. , ߸̶ ǥ ƴ ٸ ǥ ִ Ÿ ϴ κ ִ ϱ Ѵ.
׷ ̷ ߸ ǿ  ִ ˾ƺ. ߸ տ ٸ ǥ ִ Ÿ ϴ κ Ǿִ ߸ ߸ȭ ִ. ̵ ߸ ̵ ̵ Ÿ, м ︲ ؿ .
, ̵ ⿡ 캸, Trager Smith (1966) ߸ ι° Ұ ݸ /y/ ߸,/iy,ey,ay, y/ ߸ (fronting diphthong) /w/ ϴ /uw,ow,aw/ ߸ (retracting diphthong) ̶Ѵ. /h/ ϴ /ih,eh,ah, h, h,uh/ Ǵ /r/ /ir,er, ar, r, r, ur/ ߸ (centering diphthong)̶Ѵ. ̵ 纯 밢߸ (diagonal diphthong)̸ ̵ϴ ߸ (vertical diphthong)̶ θ. ̵ ܿ 纯 ܰ ߾ ̵ϴ ߾߸ (centering diphthong) ִ (Sloat , 1978:17-18).

׸ 2.1 ߸ . A.밢 ߸ B.߸
C.߾߸.

















̵ Ÿ 󼭴,׸ 2.2 [ai, i]ó ̵Ÿ ߸ (full diphthong), [ei, ou]ó ̵ϴ Ÿ ª ߸ (half diphthong)̶ Ѵ.

׸ 2.2 ߸ ߸







82 ׸ 50


, ︲ зϸ ù ︲ ޺κк ε巯 鸮 ϰ ߸ (falling diphthong), ݴ ߸ (rising diphthong)̶ Ѵ. ε巯 κ (syllable nucleus Ǵ syllabic) ǰ ȭ κ (nonsyllabic) ȴ ( , 1985:355). ߸ ϰ ߸ شѴ. ߸ ϳ ַ /w,j/ ļӵǴ (we, you) ļӸ ︲ ũ ߸ شѴ. 츮 /,/ ⿡ شѴ. ٸ ߸̶ ( , 1985:356).
Lehiste Peterson (1961)  (complex syllable nuclei) ߸ Ͽ, ߸(phonemic diphthong) ߸(non-phonemic diphthong) Ͽ. ߸ мҷ Ǿִ. ȭ ۺκа κ κа ̿ ϴ κ ִ. ۺκа κ ǥ Ѵ. ǥ ߸ ļ ϴ ̴. ̿ ν, /ai, au, oi/ ߸ ܿ  ǥ /ey, ow, uw/ ִµ ̴ ߸ȭ Ǵ ̺θ (vowels with offglides) зDZ⵵ Ѵ. ̵ ߸ ӽð ־ ̰ Ƿ "gliding vowels(̸)"̶ Ѵ. ü , Gay (1968) ߵ, ߸ Ư¡ Ǵ ʱ ° ̺κи Ѵ. ׸ 2.3 , ̾ / , ų ª.

׸ 2.3 ߸ / ӽð ȭ




Hertz (1991) p.101 A







ݱ ߸ ǿ ̿ ˾ƺҴ. ߸ Ư¡ ˾ƺ Ѵ.

2.2 ߸ Ư¡

߸ Ư¡ Ͽ ˾ƺ ѱ ߸ Ÿ [w,j] Ư Ŀ Ͽ 캻. ߸ , ۺκ κа κ ׸ ª κ κ Ǿִ (Holbrook Fairbanks, 1962; Lehiste Peterson, 1961). ٽ ؼ, ߸ ǥ (vocalic target) Ǿ ְ ߸ ӽð κ ҾֵǾ ִ. ׷ ӵ ȭ ߸ ι ° κ ŵǴ ִ. Gay(1968) ȭ ߸ ̺κ ȭ ªٴ . ׷ κ ߰, ߸ ļ (onset frequency) Ҵ. ׸ ߸ κ ϰ Ǵ "undershoot" (Lindblom, 1964) . , Gay ߸ ӿ Ư ļ 2 ȭӵ Ȯϰ, ߸ Ҹ ƴ ҷ ƾ Ѵٰ ߴ. ׷ ̷ ߸ и мϸ, տ ӽð ̸ Ͽ ϳ DZ ϴ (Hertz,1991 ). Hertz (1991) ü 캸, ߸ ǥ ְ ߰ ̺κ ִµ,  Ÿ ó Ŀ ٴ Ŀ տ Ÿ. ׸ 2.4 [said] [sait] 2 ̰ ִ.

׸ 2.4 / Ŀ ߸ ӽð .



Hertz'91 p.99








׸ 2.4 ߰ ̺κ ٸ պκп ª δ. ̷ ߸ ߰ ̺κ ӽð Ǿ ִ Ű ȴ. , side [ai] ̴ sight ӽð 1.5谡 ̰ ִ (Hertz, 1991:100).
ݸ [w,j] յǸ ߸ ϴ. ߼ϰ ߸ ̵ٵ (Picket, 1987:106). ̵ ߼ 캸, 1) ġ ȿ 2) ϱ 3) 4) ҿ ̸ δ. ׸ 2.5 a Y a buy ߼ װ ׷ Ÿ ִ (Picket, 1987:106).
ӿ [w] [b] ʰ Ǹ ̷ ϱ [b] ̳ [w] Ÿ ʴ´. е [b] ſ Ÿ, Ʈα׷ [w] 찡 [b] (voice bar) ϰ ٴ ִ. ӽð ־, [w] 75 msec ҿ ݸ, Ŀ [b] 50 msec ª Ͽ. ӽð ̴ 1 ſ ϹǷ ű⿡ ݿǾ ִ. ̵ ſ ϰ Ǵ ̴ (labial) Ư ϱ ̴.
[w] [u] ٸ. 1) Լ [w] [u] ٴ [w] . , 1,2 , 3 ҵǸ Ÿ. 2)[w]  ġ տ ְ ġ ޴´. ణ ڷ Լ [w] ̷ ִ. ݸ鿡 [u] Լ ձ۰ 鼭 ļκ Ѵ. 3)  ӵ ̵ٴ [w] ߼ϴµ . ̰ ׸ 2.5 [w] [a] 1, [a] [I] ̺ ξ . ̰ ٷ ߸ ̴ (Picket, 1987:111). δ Ŀ ̸ 캸. ׸ 2.6 A a yacht Ʈα׷ Ÿ ڷḦ ׸ 2.6 B a dot ڷḦ ̰ ִ (Picket, 1987:114).
׸ 2.5 Ŀ ׷
. з´ cm H2O 9,806 X 102 dyne/ cm2 شѴ.
A. B.


picket p.107 fig 36a

a wai a bai
׸ 2.6 ߰κп ġ Ŀ .
A. B.


picket p.114 fig 37ab
a yacht a dot

׸ 2.6 [j, w] ġ Ͽ ̹Ƿ ̰ ִ. ϱ̳ ۿ뵵 ϴ. Ʈα׷ , ġ ̰ . ̴ 2 ̿ Ÿ. ġ̳ պκ 2 ļ ϳ Լ 2 . 1 ġ ´. ̵ 1 , ̵ 1 ļ Ѵ. ׸ , a yacht a dot 2 ̴ ÿ ļ ö󰬴ٰ, [a] κп δ (Picket, 1987:114). ݱ غ, Ư¡ 1) ߸ٴ Ŀٴ ӵ 2) ٴ ū 3) Ư¡ 2 ȭǰ ܰ迡 ļ [w] 2 [j] Ư¡ ִ (Picket, 1987:119, ǥ 3 ).
̷ Ư¡ ִ ߸ 踦 ã ϴ δ Lehiste Peterson (1961) -Ʈα׷ Ģ ߴ. Klatt (1973) - ø 2 ۺκа κ ǥ ġ ߰ 輱 ߴ (F2 halfway criterion). Salza(1988:101-2) ׸ 2.7ó Ʈα׷ ̿ ̰ ִ.
׸ 2.7 Ʈα׷ ̿ ߸







salza 1988; 101-2



2.3 ߸

տ ߸ ۺκ κа ̺κ ׸ ª κ κ Ǿ 캸Ҵ. ߸ ڷ ַ ܸ ָ ̿Ͽ ۰ κ ̺θ Ͽ. ̺ ȭ, Ư, ݿϴ 2 ̸ ϰų, ̺ ӽð ߼ ָ ̷ ִ.
յ ߸̶ ̷п ߸ ۺκа κ ǥ ̴. Holbrook Fairbanks (1962) ڷ ۺκп ° ־ κп . ׷ κп Ȯ ʱ ָ κ ȴ. ̸ ϱ Lehiste Peterson (1961) ǥ  20 msec ̶ , Gay (1970) ӽð 370 msec 20 msec ʹ ª ð̾ ؿ ǹ ϰ ִ.
Gay (1970) Bond (1978) ߸ ̺κп ߴ. Gay(1970) ٸ θ ̲ ̴ ߸ κ Ͽ. ״ ߸ νĿ ʿ ܼ ã, ش ߸ κ Ұ, ӽð ļ ȭ Ͽ. Gay (1970) , ļ ȭٴ ̺ ӽð ȭ ߸ п ܼ̰, ļ ȭ ӵ ߸ Ư . Ư, 2 ȭӵ ӽð ȭ Ư δ. ,
/ i, ai,au/ ȭӵ ϴ. ٿ, ǥ ġٴ ü ο ӽð ߸ ߿ ̴ܼ. Bond (1978) ̱ /ai,au, I/ ռϿ κ ӽð ϰ, κ ӽð 0 150 msec ȭ νĿ Ͽ (׸ 2.8 A,B ).

׸ 2.8 ߸ ӽð ȭ
A. B. C.

Bond '78 p.255 fig 1













׸ 2.8 C ̿ 50 msec ƴ ȭѼ ռ ٸ ⺻ ļ ־. ̸ ڿ ־ ߸ ߿ Ǵϰų ø  ϳ ϵ Ͽ. Bond (1978) , бȣ ޾ƾ 48 msec ƴ ڱ V V ǴϿ, 10 msec ߸ ߴ. ̰ 0 - 120 msec ߸ Ǻ߰, 120 msec ʰ , Ϻδ ߸, Ϻδ ø Ǵߴ. ⺻ ļ ȭ 󼭵 輱 ޶µ, , 100 Hz ø ߸ 10 - 20 msec ӽð ̿. 40 msec̻ ӽð ϰǰ ߸ ĺߴ. ⺻ļ 167 Hz ռ , /aU/ 130 msec ʰϴ ӽð ߸ ʰ ָ 輱 /aI/ 40 msec̻ ӽð ָ 輱̰, 60 msec ø ǴϿ. Green (1971) ΰ ð û ε ɸ 1 - 2 msec Ƿ 40 msec ̰ ڰ ν ŭ ª ̴. ӽð 밪 Ӹƴ϶, Ư ȭ ӵ شϴ ӽð Ͽ װͿ ǴѴٰ . Bond (1982) κа κ ӽð ٲپ ߸ Ͽ. ߸ ߸ ӽð յ κ ̿ ߸ Ǵ߰, 10 msec̰ յ κ  ߸ Ǵߴ. ̴ ߸ Ǵܿ ǥ ʿϸ յڿ ߸ ǴѴٴ ش.
ȭ ӽð ٲپ Ǵ  ޶° δ O'Connor (1957) Liberman (1956) ִ. ̵ ̺κ ӽð ٸ Ҹ ϴ ߿ ܼ ۿѴٴ ߰Ͽ. O'Connor (1957) ʼ /w,r,l,j/ ܼ ã , /j,w/ κ ̶ λ ʰ Ϸ 40 msec . ̱Ⱓ 100 msec̸, ׺ , ʱ κ̶⺸ٴ ٲ , , ߸ λ ְԵ . Liberman (1956) --߸ ̺ ӽð ȭ Ǵ κ Ͽ. /w / ϴ ð 150 200 msec /u / DZ ߴ. ̿ /j/ - /i/ [ + ] ߸ Ǵ 200 - 230 msec ó Դ. ̷ ð ߸ ĺ ߿ ܼ Ÿ. ̷ پ ̰ ߸ ſ ߿ δ.
Jha (1985) εƸȾ ƿ / i/ / u/ еǴ ߸ ó ߸ΰ Ʈα׷ 縦 ǽߴ. , 2 ȭ ӵ øǥ ġ ߸ ߿ ̸ܼ, ǥġ ӽð Ͽ, ӵ ϰ, Ǵ ӵ ǥ ϰ .

׸ 2.9 ߸ ӵ 2 ȭ


Jha '85 p. note 23 fig 2.











߸̶ ӵ ܸ ̶ Ǵ ӵ ǥ и е ִ.
Salza (1988:98) , ߸ ٸ (heterosyllabic sequences) ƴ϶ ΰ ø (tautosyllabic sequences) Ҵ. Żƾ п ߸ ΰ ǥ ϳ Ѵ (Salza,1988:98). Żƾ ڵ , мϿ. û ִ. ߸ κ ־, Ƿ ִ (Salza,1988:98). , [ja] [wa] ۺκ(ongliding part) ̶ θ ̰ ݸ鿡 [ai] [au] κ(offgliding part) ݸ̶ θ [i] [u] ֵȴ. ߸ ȭ ȴٴ Ͽ ǹ̿ ǹ ܾ ܾ 賻 Żƾ ߸ ø ӽð غ , ־ 쿡, ߸ ø ӽð Ͽ, ݸ鿡  [+high/-high] ̽ۺκп ߸ ø ̿ ߿ ӽð ̰ . ø ǹִ 忡 ǹ ๮ ӽð ٸ Ÿ (Salza, 1988). ú ߸ ǥ [j,w] ǥⰡ ϴٴ Ű õǾ, [i, u] ݸ ǥ ӽð ڷῡ Ȯ ʾҴ. (1985:79) ߸̶ 鼭 ϳ ̷ ̸, ϳ ̷ ֱ ߸ ϳ ڰ Ѵٰ ִ.

2.4 ߸


߸ ڸ ̳ ؿ ٸ зǾ ǥȴ. ַ Lehiste Peterson (1961) Ladefoged (1982) з ٸ ǥ,̾ /j,w/ ˾ƺ.
߸ 1 () ũ ϰ ǰ 2 () ϰ 帮 ȴ. /aI/ /a/ Ͽ /i/ Ͽ ̴ . 1ҿ 2ҷ ġ ̵ ⸸ Ÿ ʴ ̸ (gliding vowel) شѴ. Lehiste Peterson (1961:276-7) ̱ 15 ϰ ̸ Ͽ зϿ.
:[I, , , U]
:
ܼ:[I, æ, a, ,u]
: (A) ϸǥ:[eI, oU,3^]
(B)߸ǥ:[aI] [aU] [ I]

̵ ǥ ϰ, ߸ǥ ߸ Ͽ.
, Ladefoged (1982:70) ̱ ߸ ׸ 2.10 ְ ִ.

׸ 2.10 ̱ Ϻ ǥ. ̱ ϴ ߼ ȭ ǥ. ܸ ǥ̰, ߸ ̵ Ÿ.







Ladefoged (1982:70 fig 4.2)








ڵ ظ 캸, Jones (1957), Ward(1972), Kennyon Knott (1953) Ϻθ ߸ Ϻδ ܸ ߰, Sweet (1932), Bloomfield (1964), Trager Smith (1966) ߸ Ͽ. ߸ ڴ Sweet (1932:7-8)μ [ aa,au,ei, , i, u, ,ij,i ,oi,ou,oU,uw,u ] ִ. , Bloomfield (1964:91) ī мϰ (compound phoneme) Ͽ ߴ.

/b j/ buy /bij/ bee /b j/ boy
/bw / bough /fjuw/ few /duw/ do
/bej/ bay /gow/ go

Trager Smith (1966:20-22) /i,e,æ, , ,a, u,o, / 9 ܸ /y,w,h/ ݸ ¦ ߸ 27 Ͽ ǥϷ õϿ.Jones Trager-Smith м Ͽ Kennyon Knott (1953) м̴. ״ ߸ ǥ⸦ [aI,aU, I jU iU] ټ ߸ Ͽ. ǥ Ŀ ־ Pike ߸ȭϴ ̰  ұȣ Ͽ, Jones /i,u/ ߸ȭ ̵ Ÿ ſ ª ȭ , ù 鸮Ƿ /i:, u:/ ȣ ߴ. ̿ ̵ Ÿ ȭ ѷ /e,o/ ߸ȭ /ei, ou/ ǥߴ. ̵ ٸ ǥ ǥ Ÿ ǥ 2.1 (Ladefoged ,1982:70, Table 4.1).
, Sloat (1978) 纯 ġ Ǵ ̶ܸ, ٸ žư ߸̶ϰ, ۺκа κ ȣ Ÿ Ǿ Ÿ high [hai] ⺻ȣ ؿ ݴ޸ ȣ ׾ش. ̿ ݴ ٸ Ⱑ ϴٴ ǥϴ ߴ.

ǥ 2.1 ڵ麰 ߸ ǥ

(Ladefoged ,1982:70, Table 4.1).










Gay (1968) ȭӵ ߸ ̵ ġ Ͽµ ú ǥ ġ 2 ȭ ӵ ߸ Ư¡̸, κ ǥġ ӽð . ״ / I,aI,aU,eI,oU/ [ + ݸ] Ǵ [ + ] ⺸ٴ ҷ , ߸ κ ǥ ϱ⸸ ϵ Ƿ, ι° κ ÷ (superscript) ǥϴ ߴ (, aI,eI).
/j,w/ ڵ ظ 캸. "cue" ִ ߸ [ju] ε巯 κ ´ٴ ٸ ߸ ̰ .  ̹Ƿ /j/ Ͽ Ѵ. Ladefoged (1982) ߸ ϴµ , /j/ ٰ̿ . ƴ϶ տ /j/ ø Ͼ ִٰ ؾ Ѵ. ׷, pew, beauty, cue /u/ տ Ÿ. ǿ /pje/ /kjæ/ ۵Ǵ ܾ . /ju/ ߸ Ƽ ø ִ (Ladefoged,1982:77). ̿ Heffner (1950:112) [ju] [j] [u] ̶ ٴ ϹǷ ߸ ҷѴٰ ߴ. ׷ ̿ʹ ݴ, Gimson (1980:95)  [j, w] Ϻοʹ Ͽ ԽŰ ϴٰ Ѵ.  [j, w] տ Ÿ. : [j +I ] yiddish; [w + I] wit ;[j +e] yet; [w+e] wet. ó [j, w] [i, u] ġ ó ̵ϴ δ ϰ (vocalic) ٸ յǾ Ư¡ . (1) ι° Ұ ù° Һ ε巯 յ ߸ ȴ. (2) [j, w] (vocalic glide) ͼ ߸ ̷⵵ Ѵ. ͵ ڸ Ͽ ΰŲٸ û ⺻ ÷Ѿ Ѵ. Դٰ [j, w] ߽ɺκٴ θ ۿ ϴ ϰ, tune [j] queen [w] ̰, Ư ֱ ʱ [j, w] Ϻοʹ Ͽ ԽŰ ϴ. ߸ ݸ Ǹ ϴ ڷδ Lehiste(1964) O'Connor (1957) ִ. Lehiste (1964) ú /j,w/ ǥ ļ / i, ai, au/ ǥ ġ ߰ߴ. O'Connor (1957) (Pattern-Playback) ̿Ͽ ú /j,w/ ߴµ, / j,aj,aw/ ļġ / i,ai,au/ ļ ġ Ƿ / i,ai,au/ ǥϴ ִٰ Ҵ.

2.5 ѱ ߸

ѱ Ҵ 19, ݸ 2, ܸ 10, ߸ 12 ȴ. ݸ /j,w/̰, ܸ / / ߸ ΰ Ͽ. [ݸ + ܸ] μ () ڿ Ƿ ߸ (rising diphthong)̶ ҷ. ݸ - Ǿ ǥ 2.2 Ÿ (,1983:204).

ǥ 2.2 ѱ ݸ
+-----------------------+----------------------+
| | |
+-----------------------+----------------------+
| je j | we w |
| | |
| j ja | w wa |
+-----------------------+----------------------+

A. ݸ [j]
/,(񰭼),(),,,,/

B. ݸ [w]
/,,,,(񰭼),()/

// ߸ DZ⵵ Ѵ. ߸ ־ /j/ // ġ̹Ƿ ϸ DZ . /w/ Լ --> ̵ ҰϿ Ѵ (, 1983:204). ̷ν,/,,/ ߸ Ÿ.
[ܸ + ݸ] δ ϰ ߸μ // ִ. ϰ ߸ ٸ ߸ Ǿ ҾϹǷ ߸ ϰ ϱ⵵ϳ  Ҹ ̶ ȴ (,1983:205).
ѱ ߸ . ѱ [ + ] [au] ޸ Ҹ ︲ ϹǷ ߸ ٸ (,1990: 82). ѱ ܸ ڷ ߸ м 4忡 ϱ Ѵ.



3

3.1 ǥ

δ ػ罺 ƾ ָп ѱ ܸ ѱ л ǰϰ, û , ׷ 10 ߴ. ̵ (Yang, 1990,1992). 뿡 𱸻ڸ ߴ. , ַ Ȱ , , Ű, θ , ȭ û ϰ Ǿ ִ. ̾ ڱ׷ ߿ ټ Ƿ Ͽ ̵鿡 ڰ ߼ ܾ ߿ ֺ شϴ [ϴ, ش, Ĵ, ] ܾ Ͽ Ѳ , ٸ 鸮 ܾ ǥø ϰ ߴ. ǥø Ͽ ̵ Ͽ ܾ 34% ̻ ǥõ ڴ ܽ״. ܸ ߸ ̶ ϰ ߸ ʾҴ. ڿ , 忡 ڷ η 1 ִ.
ǥδ [_ ] ȯ濡 ټ ġ ʰ 迭Ͽ. ǥ η 2 Ƿִ. տ ȯ ̿ [] ν ¸ ֱ Ҹ ̱ Ͽ, ̸ [__] ѱ ⺻ ڿ ܾ ̾.


3.2 ڷ

ѱ 10 [_ ] ȯ濡 ټ 迭 ġ ǿ ӵ ڿ ϰ Ѵ. ̵ ߼ ȭ ۰ κ Ͽ.
Ҹ The University of Texas at Austin (UT) VAX ǻͿ ϵǾ ִ KLSPEC Ʈ (MIT D.H.Klatt UT Jerry Lame .) Ͽ ߸ ⺻ ļ Ͽ ġ ȯϿ. ǥ YAMAHA Model KX-800U īƮ ̿Ͽ Ʋ, 4 KHz ı⸦ ļ 10 kHz ǥӵ ȭ״. Ʈα׷ 1 msec 6.4 msec ع 츦 ̿Ͽ 256 ǥ ̻ Ǫ ȯ м(DFT) ̿ߴ. ߸ Ͽ ϱ Ʈα׷ Ÿ ۰ κл ӽð Ͽ (׸ 3.1 A ) ̸ ð Ͽ ⺻ļ Ͽ (׸ 3.1 B ).

׸ 3.1 ߸ ܸ ð

A:úο (纴 1990:53)









B: ߸ ð









Ʈα׷ Բ ڷᵵ Բ ̿Ͽ Ģ ȭ κ Ͽ.
̷ Ͽ 5,280 (10 X 3 ߼ X 11 X 4 ð X 4 ġ= 5,280) ߴ. ߼ ڷ κ ڷ Ͽ, ׷ ׷ Ͽ. ̵ ڷ ó Macintosh Excel 3.0Ͽ, м StatView 512+ ̿Ͽ ǥȭϿ. ̷ ڷ ѱ ܸ ڷ 踦 ŽϿ.


3.3 ⺻ļ

Ʈα׷ ߴ. , Ʈα׷ ߽ɿ ڸ ʷ ¿쿡 μ , ǻͰ DFT Ʈ ( ) ߴ. κ 쿡 ġ ġǾ. , ߸ ϴ 찡 ʵ ڰ ߼ ܾ Ʈα׷ ÿ Ͽ, 500 Hz̻ ̰ , ̰ и ٸ ǥ ߼ ϰ ġ ջ꿡 ߴ. ȭ ̴ ġ ߴ. ó ߸ ܸ ڷ Ͽ ü ļ ϰ Ͽ. 1 ⺻ļ ġϰų Ʈα׷ ٸ Ʈα׷ äϿ. 3 Ǵ ġ ļ հ Ͽ. Ư ð ļ ȭ ƮϿ Ӽ󿡼 ش  ġ Ͽ Ͽ.
⺻ ļ ڱ KLSPEC Ʈ ǻͰ Ͽ. Ͽ ʿ ð (a, d) ߻ ߸ ⺻ļ κ ⺻ļ հ̳ ٸ ǥ ߰ ð (B, C) Ͽ ϰų Ǵ Ͽ. ߰ ð ȭ Ͽ Ͽ. Ÿ ⺻ļ ̿Ͽ ߴ.

4 м

忡 ѱ ߸ ϰ, ̸ мϱ Ѵ. ߸ ⺻ļ Ͽ ˾ƺ, ̾ ߸ ӽð κ ڷ հ 캻 , ռ ѱ ܸ 񱳸 Ѵ. м Ұ ڷḦ 캻.

4.1 ߸ ⺻ļ

߸ м 캸 ǥ 4.1 . ǥ 10 ߼ ߸ ð ⺻ļ(F0) (F1, F2, F3 ) հ ǥ(sd) ϰ ִ. Ҽ Ʒ ġ ݿøϿ. κ ߸ ⺻ļ η 3 Ƿ ִ. η 7 ں 1,2,3 ð ȭ ׷, η 8 캻 1,2,3 ð 10 ׷, η 9 캻 ⺻ļ ð 10 ȭ ׷ ְ ִ.

ǥ 4.1 ߸ 10 κ ⺻ļ(F0)
(F1,F2,F3) ׿ ǥ. Tmp
ð Ÿ a ۺ, d
κп شѴ.
հ Ѵ.
Tmp F0 sdF0 F1 sdF1 F2 sdF2 F3 sdF3
a 178 23 300 40 2079 329 2869 213
b 176 27 343 38 2110 233 2879 228
c 174 28 341 34 2155 207 2863 211
d 166 30 329 48 2090 193 2831 147
Tmp F0 sdF0 F1 sdF1 F2 sdF2 F3 sdF3
a 169 22 732 112 1137 108 2492 176
b 163 24 731 64 1222 84 2488 157
c 162 25 701 48 1306 81 2519 161
d 159 24 546 101 1367 95 2584 160
a 171 23 496 122 1664 167 2423 104
b 169 25 535 71 1769 59 2491 88
c 168 26 532 66 1809 127 2595 112
d 162 26 432 78 1704 137 2638 140
a 168 24 374 59 1607 179 2371 114
b 169 25 463 45 1819 100 2430 112
c 167 26 490 62 1839 101 2564 116
d 160 27 417 88 1716 115 2629 140
a 167 23 518 73 923 51 2585 189
b 167 25 539 64 1006 66 2577 198
c 166 26 559 69 1105 63 2565 172
d 160 28 474 86 1293 133 2673 129
a 168 23 619 115 1689 216 2562 219
b 164 25 726 75 1479 124 2476 188
c 161 26 734 71 1400 79 2459 180
d 157 25 578 65 1403 94 2561 150
a 171 25 506 69 1983 177 2683 152
b 169 26 547 57 1910 161 2693 117
c 166 26 564 47 1830 159 2700 89
d 160 27 461 84 1714 127 2684 133
a 170 28 396 114 2083 188 2746 169
b 168 31 455 81 2015 173 2699 156
c 165 31 475 70 1915 119 2681 128
d 158 29 408 86 1765 117 2697 151
a 174 25 377 56 1322 237 2419 146
b 169 26 440 37 1068 61 2477 168
c 166 26 441 45 1084 86 2542 208
d 162 26 413 60 1282 141 2634 215
a 176 24 304 42 1661 209 2323 176
b 172 27 356 43 1458 116 2327 193
c 169 29 362 47 1401 135 2386 188
d 162 31 349 54 1495 172 2514 185
a 169 22 532 73 1382 176 2597 118
b 167 25 577 57 1205 52 2561 102
c 165 26 560 60 1211 75 2580 82
d 161 27 483 90 1307 138 2670 154
--------------------------------------------------------
167 26 489 67 1563 136 2585 155
ǥ 4.1 캸, κ ġ Ͽ ± κ Ư ѷ Ÿ ʴ ֱ , ü ߸ ִ. , ⺻ļ ǥ 캸 ܳ ȭ ִ. ⺻ļ 26 Hz ȭ 22 31 Hz̷ Ǿ ִ. ⺻ļ ޶, ֵ ۺκп κп ް ϰϰ , [,,]  ټ ó Ǿ ִٰ κп ϰϴ ̰ ִ. 1 67 Hz̰ 34 122 Hz ִ. 2 136 Hz ǥ , 51 Hz 329 Hz Ÿµ Ư [] ־ ̸ μ (1985) Ѵ [] Ǿ ش. ̸ [] ̾ [__] ѵ ̴ [w] ϱ ڷ ٰ ٽ 汸 [__] ϴ ڸ ٸ ӵ ϱ . 3 155 Hz ȭ ̰ 83 228 Hz Ÿ ִ. ⼭ [] ̸ Ÿ ִ. ü , ߸ ǰ Ǿ , Ư , ۺκ a ȭ Ÿµ ̴ ٷ [w,j] ߼ Ŀ ڸ ̰ ֱ . ̷ Ʈα׷ ̿Ͽ κ Ư ߼Ŀ ־. , Ʈα׷ Ÿ κ Ư¡ 캸, s1 s6 d ҿ 3 ٰ Ͽ, 2 [] [] ġ Ͽ 񽺵 Ư¡ ־. ̷ 2 Ư¡ s3 2 kHzؼ Ͽ Ÿ. , s4,s5,s6,s7,s8 [] ܸó ؼ 2 ȭ . s5 s7 쿡 [ȳ] [] ϰ ߴ. s7 쿡 [] ܸ ߴ. Ϲ ߸ ϰ Ģ ð ϴ ߿ ̶ ִ.
[w] [y] ϴ ׷ Ͽ  ϱ? ⿡ ڷ ǥ 4.2 Ÿ ִ.

ǥ 4.2. [w] [y] ϴ ׷ Ͽ

A [w] ׷(,,,)

ð F0 sdF0 F1 sdF1 F2 sdF2 F3 sdF3
a 169 23 530 92 1333 126 2468 146
b 167 25 567 61 1454 77 2497 139
c 166 26 571 61 1515 93 2561 140
d 160 26 467 88 1520 120 2631 142
------------------------------------------------------------
165 25 534 76 1455 104 2539 142

B. [y] ׷ ( ,,,,)

ð F0 sdF0 F1 sdF1 F2 sdF2 F3 sdF3
a 171 25 456 78 1687 201 2555 163
b 168 27 517 58 1523 115 2539 154
c 165 27 523 57 1474 109 2558 146
d 160 28 449 73 1494 132 2627 165
------------------------------------------------------------
166 27 486 67 1544 139 2570 157

C. A,B׷ ģ ߸ ð ⺻ļ հ.

ð F0 sdF0 F1 sdF1 F2 sdF2 F3 sdF3
a 170 24 493 85 1510 163 2511 155
b 168 26 542 60 1488 96 2518 146
c 166 27 547 59 1494 101 2559 143
d 160 27 458 81 1507 126 2629 153
------------------------------------------------------------
166 26 510 71 1500 121 2554 149

ǥ 4.2 캸, ð ⺻ļ ȭ [w]׷쿡 9 Hz [y]׷쿡 11 Hzμ ȭ ̰ ִ. 1 [w]׷쿡 ϴٰ D 100 Hzϰ [y]׷쵵 . ׷ 2 ׷찣 ѷ ̰ δ. [w]׷쿡 200 Hz ݸ [y]׷쿡 170 Hz ϰϿ. ̰ ļ ġ [w] [y] ⶧ ߻ . Ư [w]׷쿡 ۺκа κ ̰ Ҵ. 3 ׷ κп ļ ߰ ۺο ° [w]׷쿡 100 Hz ߰, [y]׷쿡 ū ȭ . ǥ  ׷ ģ ߸ ð ⺻ļ հ 캸 ⺻ ļ ۺκп κп 10 Hz Ͽ ļ 1 510 Hz 2 1500 Hz 3 2554 Hz ν ϰ [] ° ǹǷν ̴ ٷ ϱ  ʴ ߸ ġ ȯ ˷ش. ռ ־ ⺻ [] Ͽ Ͽ ȯ Ǵ ϴ ̴. ǥ ־, 1,2,3 ִµ ̴ ٷ Ƿμ ϴ о ε δ. 3 1 谡 ȴ.
ݱ ð ȭϴ 캸Ҵµ ̹ ȭ ˾ƺ Ѵ. ļ ȭ ˾ƺ ù° ð ° ð (a-d). ǥ 4.2 ֵ, ù ° ð Ͽ κ ׹ ° ð [__] ϰ Ͽ ٽ ù ° ð ư ̹Ƿ ȭ ϱ ƴ. ׹ ° ð ⼭ ϰ ù ° ° ļ ȭ Ͽ. ǥ 4.3 캸.

ǥ 4.3 ù ° ð ° ð ļ ȭ.


F0 F1 F2 F3
-------------------------------
4 -41 -76 6
-------------------------------
7 31 -169 -27
3 -36 -145 -172
1 -116 -232 -193
1 -41 -182 20
-------------------------------
[ 3 -41 -182 -93]* [w]׷
-------------------------------
7 -115 289 103
5 -58 153 -17
5 -79 168 65
8 -64 238 -123
7 -58 260 -63
4 -28 171 17
-------------------------------
[ 6 -67 213 -3]** [y]׷
-------------------------------
[ 5 -55 39 -37]*** ߸


ǥ 4.3 캸, ⺻ļ 5 Hz Ҹ , 1 55 Hz Ͽ 2 [w] ϴ ׷쿡 182 HzϿ. ȭ []μ 232 Hz ȭ ݸ ȭ []. ̰ ܸ ġ ̵Ÿ ª ȭ ߴٰ . [y] ϴ ׷쿡 213 Hz ȭ µ, ȭ []μ 289 Hz ȭ ݸ ȭ []. ⼭ ġ [y] ִ, [,,] 230 Hz̻ ȭ ִ ָȴ. 3 [w]׷쿡 93 Hz ־ [y]׷쿡 3 Hz ־.[] [] ۽ ־.
ݱ 캻 ٿ ϸ, 2 ȭ ־, δ 1, ̾ 3 . ⺻ļ ū ȭ . , δ 1,2 ΰ м . ǥ 4.1  1,2 ׸ 4.1ó Ÿ Ҵ. ׸ x 1 Ÿ y 2 Ÿ. Hz̴. ߸ شġ ǥϿ. ǥϱ 簢 ̿Ͽ. ۺθ 簢 Ͽ ܰ躰 ä , κ 簢 İ ä ǥߴ. ð ̵ Ÿ.

׸ 4.1 ð 캻 ѱ ߸ ̵.



<<׸ >>














׸ 4.1 ð ȭ Ÿ ִµ, 1, [] ϰ Ͽٰ κп ϰϿ. 1 ݿϴ , 翬 . ֳϸ, ߸ ϱ Ͽٰ [] ϱ ÷ȱ ̴. ַ ݿϴ 2 ־ ٴ ļ ־ ȭ ־. ׷캰 캸, [w] ϴ ׷ [] ϰ ۺκп ° κ 1 2 ļ ϴ ְ, [y] ϴ ׷ 1 [] ϰְ, 2 [] Ͽ ϰϴ δ. ̴ ٷ Ӱ ġϴ . Ư, ̾ ȯ [__] 汸 Ŀ ϱ κ ߾ ϴ ִ. [] 쿡 1̳ 2 ̵Ÿ  [] ̴. ̰ Ʈα׷ ۺκ [__] ̺κ Ÿ־µ, ־ κп  .


4.2 ߸ ܸ

߸ ܸ ϱ Ѵ. ܸ ⺻ļ Yang( 1990) Ͽ. ܸ 迡 ڴ ߸ Ͽ ȣ д. ̵鿡Լ ܸ հ η5 Ƿִ. κ ܸ Yang (1990:139-143) Ƿ ִ. ߸ ڷᰡ ׹ ° ð ׸ 4.1 캻 ó [__] ޾Ƽ  ϴ ŸǷ ⼭ ϰ ȭ 1,2 Ͽ ַ м Ѵ. ܸ ڷ ־ ߸ ణ ٸ Ǿֱ (Yang, 1990), ġ Ǵ B D ϰ ߸ úο ° ð Ͽ ǥϱ Ѵ. ܸ ߸ ӽð 40 dB ϰ Ģ ϸ Ÿ ϴ ۺκϰ, 40 dB ϰϰ ұĢ ۵Ǵ κ Ͽ (Yang,1990:53-4 ׸ 3.3, ׸ 3.4 ). Ʈα׷ ׻ Ͽ Ȯ ãҴ. ӽð ܸ 6Ͽ ȭ ִ ó κ ϰ ߰, ߸ ӽð 4Ͽ ð Ͽ Ʈ Ͽ. ׸ 4.2 Ÿ ܸ ð B D ߸ ι ° ° ð ġ ȴ.

׸ 4.2 ܸ ߸ ð .

<<׸ >>











׷ ̷ ܸ ߸ 1,2 ׸ 4.3 캸. ׸ 4.3 ׸ 4.1 Ÿ. ׸ x 1 Ÿ y 2 Ÿ. Hz̰ ش ú ǥϿ. ǥϱ 簢 ̿Ͽ, ۺθ 簢 Ͽ ܰ躰 ä , κ 簢 İ ä ǥߴ. ܸ Ÿ ߸ δ.

׸ 4.3 ߸ ܸ м.







<<׸ >>











׸ 4.2 캸, ܸ ߸ 1,2 ο ȭ ̰ ִ. Ư, ° ð ܸ ġ ġϴ ̰ ִ. , [] [] [] [] Ȯ ġϸ, [] [] κ ܸ ġ Ѵ. [,] [] ġ ư, [] [] . ׷캰 캸, [y]׷ ܸ [] ϰ , ϰ ְ, [w]׷ [] ġ ִ. ü 캸 [] ܸ [] ġ Ͽ [] ߰, [] ܸ [] ġ ߴ. ߸ ѷ Ÿ ִµ ܸ ª Ÿ ִ. [] 쿡 ܸ̳ [] ġ ̷ν [] [] ̶ ٴ [] ༼ [] ̵ ̵ δ. [] [] ߸ ݱԸ ܸ ־ ù ̺κ ֱ ⼭ и , ü ܸ ȭ شѴٰ ִ. θ Ǵ κ [] Ͽ ȭ мԹǷν Ǵ ̴.

4.3 ߸ ӽð

⼭ ߸ ӽð κ ڷ հ, ׸ ȭ ˾ƺ Ѵ. ǥ 4.4 κ ߸ Ͽ ӽð հ Ͽ Ÿ Ҵ. ߼ κ ߸ ӽð η 4 õǾ ִ.
ǥ 4.4 ߸ Ͽ ӽð հ
ǥ.
߸ ǥ
99 32
100 33
101 36
101 37
110 34
113 32
114 37
117 32
119 26
119 31
122 33
-----------------------
110 33

߸ ӽð Ͽ 110 msec̰ ǥ 33 msec̾. [] 99 msec [] 122 msecν 23 msec ߼Ͽ. [w]׷ Ͽ 112 msec ̰ [y]׷ 111 msecν ׷찣 ѷ Ͽ ȭ ̴ . ̷ ӽð ռ 2忡 ߴ Liberman (1956) 迡 200 230 msec ó [+] Ÿ Ϳ ߾ ſ ª ð̰ ߸̶ ٴ [ +] Ÿ ̴. ѱε ü谡 ٸ Ƿ, ̰ ̴. ̾ ں ǥ 캸 ǥ 4.5 .

ǥ 4.5 ں ӽð ǥ

ǥ
s9 78 12
s3 80 12
s4 82 14
s2 94 17
s8 99 16
s7 109 11
s10 117 20
s6 122 13
s1 152 16
s5 171 10
-----------------------
110 14

ں 캻 s9 78 msec s5 171 msec 100 msec , ǥ 14 msecν ü κδ ǰ ִ.
ٿ, ռ ȭ ߿ ִµ ڵ , ڸ κ Ư ٸ, ⺹ Ͽ  ߿ ǹ̸ ߰ϱⰡ . ⿡ ȭ ߽ 򰡷 Ұ S10 Ͽ ü 캸 Ѵ. S10 ߼ ߸ ð ־ ȭǥ η 6, ̿ ׷ η 10 ִ.η 6 ȭǥ ȭ Ʒ ǥ 4.6 .

ǥ 4.6 S10 ߼ ߸ ð ־

ð aF1 aF2 aF3
a 36 32 28
b 39 37 33
c 39 38 33
d 38 35 32
-------------------------
38 36 32

ǥ 4.6 캸 1,2,3 ۺκп Ͽٰ κп ϰϴ δ. ȭ 3 6 dB ũʴ. ð 1 2, 3 . ̸ ׷캰 иϿ 캸 ǥ 4.7 .

ǥ 4.7 S10 ߼ ߸ ð ־ ׷캰

A. [w] ׷
ð aF1 aF2 aF3
a 38 33 25
b 43 39 35
c 43 40 36
d 40 38 34


B. [y]׷
ð aF1 aF2 aF3
a 35 31 30
b 38 36 32
c 38 36 31
d 38 34 30

׷̿ ѷ е ŭ ū ̴ [w]׷캸ٴ [y]׷쿡 ü Ҵ. ̴ [] [y]׷쿡 ̶ . [w]׷쿡 ð ȭ ټ [y]׷캸ٴ о.

5
׷ ̷ 10 ڸ Ͽ ̵ Ѱ ߸ мϰ ܸ 񱳵 ߴ. ݱ 캻 ѱ ߸ غ .
1. ߸ ⺻ ļ ڰ ȭ ǥ м , ȭ ־.
2. հ ϰ ߸ [] ͼ, ߸ ռ ⺻ Ͽ ȯϴµ ̿ .
3. ⺻ļ ȭ м , 2 ȭ ־, 1, 3 Ÿ. ⺻ļ ٸ ū ȭ . Ư, 2 ־, [y] ϴ ׷ ϰϰ, [w] ϴ ׷ ϴ .
4. ȭ , ַ ݿϴ 1 [] ϰ Ͽٰ κп ϰϿ. ̿ ַ ݿϴ 2 ٴ ļ ȭ .
5. [__] 汸 Ŀ ϱ κ ߾ Ͽ. [] 쿡 2 ̵Ÿ  [] .
6. ӽð ؼ 110 msecν ߼߰, 33 msec ȭڰ 14 msecν ü ڳ ǰ ־.
7. ߸ ܸ 񱳿 ܸ ߸ ѷ ȭ , Ư ° ð ܸ ߸ ġϿ. ̴ ߸ ݴ, ù ° ϰ ª ǰ, ι ° ǥ ϰ Ȯ Ǿ ش.
8. ߸ ܸٴ 1,2 ȭ ΰ ټ Ȱϴٰ ִ. , ߸ ̵ θ 캸, [w]׷쿡 1,2 Ѵٸ, [y]׷쿡 1 ϳ 2 ַ ϰѴ. ߸ κ ׻ ܸ ư. ߸ ̵ δ ü ªƼ ߸ شѴٰ , [] Ͼ.
迡 Ÿ ̳ Ȼδ ߸ ӽð Ͽ ð Ʈα׷ Ÿ [] Ÿ ̺κ ʾҴ. Ϻ ߸ ־ κп м ԽŲٸ Ȯ . 迡 ǿ ڷ̱⿡ ȯ濡 ߼ ڷῡ 䰡 ̷ ̴. ַ ߼ ġϿ 2 ҵ ռ Ͽ ߿ ã ͵ ߿ ̴.
ѱ ߸ ڷ ̿ ̸, ܸ ߸ 踦 ν ռ ڵ νġ ̳ ѱ ȰǸ ȴ. Ư, ߸ ѽ Դ о м ν ϰ Ǹ .


°. (1987). . :.
,̰,ѿ, ,Ż. (1985). .
:žƻ.
Ż,̵,ȯ.(1988). ƹ . :ѽŹȭ.
纴.(1992). Թ. λ:ȭ.
, ,ȣ, 纴. (1994 μ ).
.
:ѽŹȭ.
. (1988). . 뱸:б Ǻ.
.(1990)...뿵 ߽.
:žǻ.
̱⹮,,̻. (1991)..:й.
. (1990). . :žƻ.
.(1988). .:ȭ.
.(1983). . :.
Ȳ. (1991). ѱ . :ݵǻ.

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(JASA)
44(6), pp.1570-73.
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Gerber, S.E. (1972). "Perception of segmented diphthongs."
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pp.480-92. The Hague: Mouton and Co.
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London: Edward Arnold.
Gleason, H.A. (1955). An Introduction to Descriptive
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. New York: Henry Holt and Co.
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78, pp.540-51.
Heffner, R-M.S. (1950). General Phonetics. Madison, Wisconsin:
The University of Wisconsin Press.
Hertz, S.R. (1991). "Streams, phones and transitions: toward
a new phonological and phonetic model of formant timing."
Journal of Phonetics
19(1), pp.91-110.
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(privately published).
Holbrook, A. & Fairbanks, G. (1962). "Diphthong formants and
their movements." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research
5(1), pp.38-58.
Jha, S.K. (1985). "Acoustic analysis on the Maithili
diphthongs." Journal of Phonetics 13, pp.107-115.
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American English
. Springfield: Merriam.
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diphthongs." JASA 33(3). pp.268-77.
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No. 34.
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(1956). "Tempo of frequency change as a cue for
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, 52, pp.127-37.
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. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
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Cooper, F.S. (1957). "Acoustic cues for the perception of
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JASA 91(4), pp.2280-83.


η 1. 忡

ȣ Ű (cm)
s1 32 161
s2 31 180
s3 34 160
s4 27 174
s5 29 175
s6 24 175
s7 29 170
s8 30 164
s9 30 173
s10 26 175

η 2. ǥ

1.̴ 2. 3. 4. 5.ȿ
6.Ѵ 7.޴ 8. 9.ȭ 10.
11.̴ 12.ȳ 13.Ѵ 14.ȿ 15.
16. 17. 18.ȭ 19.޴ 20.
21.ȳ 22.ȿ 23. 24.Ѵ 25.
26.̴ 27. 28.ȳ 29.޴ 30.ȭ
31. 32. 33. 34.̴ 35.
36. 37.ȳ 38.ȿ 39.Ѵ 40.
41.ȭ 42. 43. 44.޴ 45.̴
46. 47.ȳ 48. 49.ȭ 50.
51. 52.ȿ 53. 54.Ѵ 55.޴




η 3. κ ߸ ⺻ļ

S1 (1)
Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 152 277 1357 2561
b 150 396 1683 2438
c 149 327 2004 2408
d 141 263 2025 2624
a 151 836 1076 2607
b 145 818 1186 2659
c 143 781 1340 2609
d 139 446 1503 2763
a 159 351 1572 2504
b 151 471 1738 2555
c 150 435 1808 2686
d 147 301 1687 2775
a 158 276 1573 2516
b 153 419 1771 2562
c 149 440 1848 2668
d 145 305 1763 2744
a 156 397 859 2703
b 154 440 904 2707
c 153 483 1096 2636
d 144 322 1410 2690
a 149 459 1902 2635
b 142 851 1529 2520
c 141 837 1470 2618
d 137 515 1525 2636
a 157 447 2051 2747
b 152 590 1984 2814
c 153 562 1960 2777
d 150 358 1824 2840
a 158 310 2213 2821
b 147 356 2131 2801
c 148 398 2066 2802
d 137 306 1855 2842
a 149 325 1638 2455
b 148 382 1007 2495
c 149 370 987 2514
d 146 336 1458 2808

S1 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 155 260 2040 2546
b 149 285 1571 2418
c 147 291 1473 2479
d 131 268 1663 2627
a 156 413 1597 2641
b 151 572 1249 2507
c 149 467 1223 2579
d 144 365 1486 2887
S2
a 178 292 2334 2986
b 177 320 2247 3001
c 173 328 2250 2954
d 146 321 2149 2923
a 162 998 1288 2408
b 165 863 1350 2382
c 160 724 1410 2460
d 152 503 1422 2465
a 170 782 1836 2351
b 167 716 1799 2369
c 161 675 1763 2433
d 153 360 1622 2524
a 154 369 1501 2418
b 164 498 1784 2405
c 158 535 1745 2462
d 146 317 1565 2709
a 165 588 943 2464
b 165 602 1009 2429
c 155 654 1119 2423
d 146 417 1179 2721
a 171 753 2071 2604
b 164 824 1672 2386
c 153 883 1558 2371
d 144 565 1385 2457
a 169 560 2078 2635
b 166 564 2089 2639
c 157 583 1984 2638
d 141 425 1701 2610
a 164 268 2216 2865
b 164 354 2172 2911
c 156 383 2021 2849
d 143 311 1788 2813

S2 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 167 359 1247 2625
b 172 419 1027 2713
c 164 428 1040 2905
d 159 344 1105 2993
a 171 303 1780 2379
b 171 345 1590 2398
c 163 338 1464 2562
d 155 320 1419 2746
a 163 610 1630 2523
b 164 675 1164 2681
c 164 604 1131 2727
d 159 499 1135 2855
S3
a 182 229 1969 2959
b 166 303 1929 3022
c 163 311 1863 2937
d 156 272 1819 2755
a 187 715 1093 2450
b 154 722 1244 2499
c 155 668 1355 2592
d 161 493 1354 2497
a 166 587 1855 2459
b 164 547 1878 2573
c 162 512 1744 2588
d 157 401 1644 2514
a 162 439 1442 2292
b 160 484 1745 2261
c 156 469 1778 2468
d 145 372 1615 2467
a 164 538 947 2542
b 157 535 1015 2422
c 155 542 1097 2344
d 152 455 1341 2500
a 159 575 1428 2740
b 157 780 1363 2789
c 155 711 1356 2615
d 150 598 1419 2513
a 165 594 1775 2546
b 163 565 1710 2596
c 159 517 1588 2609
d 150 356 1503 2495

S3 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 165 460 1849 2590
b 155 467 1833 2522
c 150 447 1788 2490
d 143 344 1604 2431
a 171 408 1104 2191
b 159 463 1149 2250
c 154 440 1268 2305
d 151 414 1325 2393
a 176 249 1431 2052
b 164 346 1456 2007
c 158 358 1526 2111
d 153 333 1624 2338
a 165 590 1037 2570
b 163 542 1161 2499
c 160 537 1252 2542
d 154 397 1271 2537
S4
a 182 320 2021 2944
b 179 351 2028 2957
c 168 340 1984 2944
d 157 313 1855 2876
a 185 706 1353 2084
b 163 667 1394 2148
c 157 623 1438 2125
d 154 348 1448 2331
a 158 503 1799 2265
b 164 498 1747 2385
c 160 481 1711 2531
d 153 335 1550 2548
a 183 306 1839 2197
b 170 373 1882 2364
c 161 345 1852 2668
d 156 294 1704 2468
a 167 439 930 2221
b 168 455 1076 2196
c 163 429 1229 2271
d 154 357 1440 2538
a 176 819 1492 2036
b 164 739 1428 2074
c 156 690 1418 2114
d 151 448 1425 2411

S4 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 174 522 1904 2884
b 165 513 1794 2914
c 157 578 1733 2835
d 151 378 1650 2633
a 155 228 2018 2966
b 163 377 1948 2957
c 157 393 1931 2842
d 148 325 1770 2611
a 175 322 1129 2172
b 165 391 1047 2185
c 160 374 1131 2228
d 156 335 1379 2277
a 174 288 1658 2125
b 171 348 1553 2092
c 165 337 1570 2128
d 154 304 1638 2248
a 169 494 1329 2816
b 165 475 1247 2728
c 158 453 1348 2626
d 153 340 1423 2459
S5
a 172 286 2544 3044
b 165 325 2472 3118
c 163 318 2474 3089
d 157 316 2419 3024
a 157 647 1147 2433
b 154 695 1155 2441
c 151 696 1251 2496
d 147 574 1431 2707
a 165 379 1708 2428
b 156 538 1758 2567
c 158 566 1780 2669
d 147 443 1685 2780
a 154 353 1794 2443
b 155 485 1905 2590
c 152 561 1896 2641
d 144 451 1737 2738
a 145 487 840 2505
b 149 558 881 2505
c 151 586 1025 2551
d 142 480 1487 2704

S5 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 158 516 1725 2447
b 149 640 1615 2387
c 144 692 1432 2476
d 144 536 1529 2768
a 168 541 1983 2543
b 161 611 1903 2675
c 158 606 1843 2748
d 149 488 1826 2761
a 169 322 2314 2933
b 148 443 2296 2736
c 143 532 1967 2683
d 156 375 1858 2792
a 174 314 1685 2498
b 159 428 1076 2493
c 150 439 1019 2511
d 139 402 1532 2742
a 169 299 1902 2500
b 155 325 1456 2610
c 144 319 1293 2608
d 136 303 1792 2760
a 154 534 1425 2529
b 148 605 1243 2396
c 142 593 1245 2459
d 134 514 1533 2718
S6
a 215 302 2450 3208
b 227 362 2445 3138
c 230 397 2450 3051
d 228 408 2294 2834
a 198 668 1047 2555
b 209 720 1177 2545
c 214 728 1254 2548
d 211 623 1279 2743
a 215 446 1514 2456
b 217 513 1713 2477
c 221 564 2037 2544
d 219 529 1954 2634
a 215 402 1708 2452
b 223 456 1856 2496
c 222 505 1996 2557
d 220 487 1914 2680

S6 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 207 581 1006 2695
b 215 626 1074 2716
c 218 631 1083 2707
d 217 587 1235 2687
a 211 605 1706 2433
b 211 670 1328 2422
c 215 703 1295 2471
d 208 616 1262 2681
a 222 469 2154 2517
b 221 583 2037 2566
c 222 638 2029 2568
d 219 609 1791 2591
a 235 468 2104 2564
b 240 511 2008 2533
c 236 503 1932 2510
d 223 473 1871 2641
a 216 369 1367 2507
b 210 469 1133 2553
c 213 497 1157 2637
d 210 485 1245 2589
a 221 351 1551 2489
b 225 436 1280 2457
c 227 447 1243 2499
d 223 440 1340 2533
a 208 513 1384 2468
b 212 613 1196 2485
c 215 622 1129 2516
d 214 618 1275 2636
S7
a 208 264 2069 2967
b 210 279 2062 2933
c 212 292 2048 2933
d 209 306 2018 2832
a 198 712 1025 2711
b 197 674 1144 2710
c 195 650 1177 2727
d 188 537 1221 2708
a 203 529 1700 2547
b 205 567 1708 2532
c 203 576 1662 2625
d 197 498 1562 2579

S7 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 192 409 1552 2205
b 198 479 1625 2316
c 200 545 1694 2506
d 192 525 1576 2581
a 203 603 888 2844
b 205 596 1010 2853
c 206 592 1076 2793
d 203 534 1230 2760
a 199 656 1356 2646
b 201 702 1298 2586
c 198 659 1291 2680
d 193 593 1290 2701
a 198 583 1686 2643
b 202 600 1732 2593
c 200 595 1643 2644
d 195 552 1564 2645
a 197 598 1743 2667
b 203 607 1776 2646
c 201 598 1733 2688
d 193 544 1585 2668
a 216 414 1079 2366
b 217 431 1001 2578
c 211 425 1034 2559
d 205 401 1182 2607
a 209 258 1573 2147
b 211 326 1375 2203
c 211 348 1193 2271
d 208 355 1281 2358
a 209 508 1245 2611
b 208 592 1124 2657
c 205 582 1170 2686
d 199 488 1219 2737
S8
a 142 360 1967 2581
b 136 388 2061 2600
c 135 377 2102 2665
d 133 363 2127 2757
a 134 758 1152 2622
b 128 761 1177 2506
c 129 743 1296 2477
d 129 675 1373 2360

S8 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 139 482 1669 2356
b 133 514 1777 2404
c 133 519 1905 2480
d 133 486 1840 2515
a 129 396 1646 2384
b 132 490 1915 2368
c 133 494 1892 2393
d 131 429 1807 2465
a 134 544 930 2723
b 132 572 1046 2640
c 133 603 1152 2587
d 132 545 1244 2546
a 134 717 1690 2829
b 131 743 1471 2438
c 130 748 1402 2279
d 128 637 1435 2284
a 130 382 2291 2986
b 131 438 2186 2826
c 130 485 1999 2754
d 127 453 1900 2690
a 132 393 2298 2912
b 133 429 2164 2742
c 131 471 2028 2699
d 129 442 1895 2637
a 137 349 1596 2378
b 133 449 1134 2370
c 132 472 1106 2408
d 131 454 1271 2525
a 136 311 1755 2310
b 134 384 1552 2276
c 133 382 1523 2232
d 132 365 1469 2357
a 141 645 1381 2781
b 131 627 1283 2591
c 131 592 1292 2511
d 129 506 1329 2471
S9
a 189 316 2078 2669
b 188 371 2085 2718
c 182 380 2057 2681
d 177 396 1956 2626

S9 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 166 654 1150 2433
b 161 688 1194 2418
c 159 671 1241 2638
d 155 615 1230 2665
a 182 478 1689 2291
b 174 522 1716 2435
c 165 502 1694 2576
d 155 479 1632 2588
a 174 464 1756 2312
b 177 521 1756 2394
c 171 516 1729 2517
d 162 493 1649 2565
a 171 569 974 2409
b 166 533 1001 2524
c 161 556 1017 2603
d 152 540 1046 2640
a 163 557 1731 2596
b 161 631 1550 2615
c 158 698 1378 2607
d 152 603 1299 2633
a 175 524 1903 2668
b 176 534 1777 2635
c 170 515 1712 2648
d 162 471 1629 2629
a 170 488 1987 2601
b 167 526 1827 2562
c 161 520 1746 2569
d 151 487 1629 2585
a 175 496 1107 2459
b 171 501 992 2474
c 165 490 1006 2539
d 161 479 1125 2571
a 180 372 1543 2236
b 174 399 1479 2270
c 170 417 1443 2388
d 164 412 1394 2490
a 174 571 1279 2510
b 172 536 1158 2550
c 168 537 1123 2593
d 163 522 1123 2597


S10
Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 156 352 2001 2774
b 162 331 2091 2865
c 167 336 2318 2967
d 158 333 2243 3058
a 154 626 1044 2616
b 151 702 1202 2570
c 156 723 1294 2517
d 155 648 1407 2600
a 155 423 1300 2570
b 158 467 1856 2608
c 164 490 1988 2821
d 161 488 1868 2920
a 160 332 1255 2490
b 161 428 1953 2549
c 169 491 1962 2761
d 163 496 1824 2869
a 159 438 911 2739
b 159 476 1046 2773
c 162 514 1152 2738
d 160 500 1314 2944
a 163 535 1784 2656
b 157 677 1532 2545
c 162 719 1400 2359
d 162 671 1457 2521
a 153 439 2002 2660
b 154 475 1891 2668
c 159 562 1805 2777
d 155 517 1748 2950
a 160 428 2090 2543
b 161 479 1994 2578
c 166 507 1938 2681
d 159 474 1794 2950
a 161 413 1265 2539
b 158 465 1117 2662
c 162 480 1093 2816
d 163 480 1204 2833
a 168 350 1378 2443
b 164 369 1271 2541
c 167 385 1283 2581
d 167 393 1330 2685

s10 Tmp F0 F1 F2 F3
a 156 441 1510 2523
b 155 531 1226 2516
c 159 609 1195 2566
d 158 585 1277 2803


η 4. κ ߸ Ͽ ӽð հ

s1 s2 s3 s4 s5
173 77 63 80 157
127 70 67 70 177
137 100 83 87 183
140 123 93 80 180
153 97 80 70 177
170 107 80 83 160
150 117 77 110 173
153 103 97 103 170
173 83 90 87 180
153 80 87 67 163
137 80 63 70 157

s6 s7 s8 s9 s10
103 107 90 60 103
127 110 87 70 107
130 103 83 97 127
123 133 93 93 163
130 100 103 87 103
143 100 120 87 117
117 127 120 67 137
127 107 120 87 120
133 100 110 77 103
100 110 80 70 90
113 100 80 70 117


η 5. ܸ ⺻ļ .
ù° ð Ÿ, ι° 0 ⺻
ļ. 1,2,3 1,2,3 ļ Ÿ.

A0 A1 A2 A3 B0 B1 B2 B3
162 753 1368 2579 162 738 1372 2573
167 612 1879 2586 165 591 1849 2597
168 484 1969 2653 167 490 1968 2644
172 337 2230 3066 172 341 2219 3047
170 449 903 2665 170 453 945 2674
167 447 1797 2450 166 459 1817 2468
175 362 948 2574 174 369 981 2565
175 334 2080 2665 174 338 2114 2729
165 618 1107 2692 165 608 1121 2683
175 394 1487 2482 174 405 1488 2497

C0 C1 C2 C3 D0 D1 D2 D3
161 720 1390 2563 161 686 1421 2543
164 585 1826 2606 162 560 1809 2624
166 490 1951 2647 164 478 1923 2651
171 345 2221 3033 169 346 2199 3012
169 455 1019 2670 167 445 1089 2660
165 460 1830 2525 163 453 1826 2566
172 375 1052 2555 170 375 1125 2576
172 343 2125 2783 170 343 2113 2798
165 591 1144 2670 164 571 1186 2651
173 405 1508 2520 171 401 1552 2531


η 6. 10 (s10) ȭǥ.Tmp ð a
(amplitude) Ÿ ̾ ڴ
شѴ.

Tmp a1 a2 a3 Tmp a1 a2 a3
a 34 33 31 a 35 35 34
b 34 34 32 b 36 39 37
c 34 36 32 c 36 38 35
d 32 33 34 d 36 38 35
a 37 37 26 a 37 38 37
b 37 42 32 b 41 44 40
c 37 43 34 c 42 40 37
d 37 39 28 d 40 33 35
a 38 32 28 a 35 28 26
b 46 37 38 b 43 34 29
c 48 36 40 c 42 33 27
d 39 39 39 d 43 33 28
a 35 29 24 a 36 22 26
b 41 39 40 b 35 28 29
c 43 42 40 c 34 29 29
d 42 37 35 d 34 29 28
a 41 34 23 a 30 29 23
b 46 38 30 b 36 32 29
c 42 40 31 c 37 37 28
d 42 36 32 d 36 36 29
a 34 36 32 ----------------------
b 38 39 27 38 36 31
c 38 40 30 ----------------------
d 38 37 26 ǥ 4.0 4.6 4.8

η 7. ں 1,2,3 ð ׷

η 8. 캻 1,2,3 ð
10 ׷

η 9. 캻 ⺻ļ ð
10 ׷

η 10. S10 ȭ ׷

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110
111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
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